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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: SEGARRA LAGUNES, MARIA MARGARITA;

    L'articolo è incentrato sul progetto di restauro e recupero dell'Anfiteatro romano di Tivoli. Abbandonato e dimenticato per molti anni, esso costituisce una parte essenziale del patrimonio culturale della città, integrato da monumenti quali la Villa d'Este, la Rocca Pia (il cui recupero sarà completato a breve) e le Scuderie Estensi. Il restauro dell'Anfiteatro pone, infatti, questioni interessanti, legate non soltanto alla conservazione del sito archeologico, ma anche alla sua comprensione, interpretazione e presentazione al pubblico (mediante ricostruzioni parziali), così inerenti agli uso compatibili. The paper is focused on the project of restoration and recovery of the Roman Amphitheatre in Tivoli. Abandoned and forgotten for many years, it is an essential part of the cultural heritage of the city, consisting in monuments such as the Villa d'Este, the Rocca Pia (whose recovery will be completed soon) and the Scuderie Estensi. Its restoration arises, in fact, interesting questions related not only to the preservation of the archaeological site, but also to its understanding, interpretation and presentation to the public (partial reconstructions), as well as to its compatible use.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della Ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della Ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morezzi, Emanuele; Haj Ismail, Salah;
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    Publications Open Repository TOrino
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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    Publications Open Repository TOrino
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publications Open Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Publications Open Repository TOrino
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Publications Open Repository TOrino
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Paola Bracciale; Lorena Capasso; Fabrizio Sarasini; Jacopo Tirillò; +1 Authors

    In recent years, fluoropolymers have found numerous applications in the architectural field because of their combination of mechanical-chemical resistance and high transparency. In the present work, commercial fluorinated polymers, such as perfluoro alkoxy (PFA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), have been evaluated for use as protective and transparent layers on monumental and archaeological sites (to preserve mosaics or frescoes) during the phases of restoration or maintenance outdoors. Considering this specific application, the present study was developed by evaluating the evolution of the mechanical (tensile, tear propagation resistance, and low-velocity impact tests) and chemical (FTIR and DSC analysis) properties of the films after accelerated UV aging. The results that were obtained demonstrated the high resistance capacity of the ETFE, which exhibits considerably higher elastic modulus and critical tear energy values than PFA films (1075.38 MPa and 131.70 N/mm for ETFE; 625.48 MPa and 59.06 N/mm for PFA). After aging, the samples exhibited only a slight reduction of about 5% in the elastic modulus for both polymers and 10% in the critical tear energy values for PFA. Furthermore, the differences in impact resistance after aging were limited for both polymers; however, the ETFE film showed higher peak force than the PFA films (82.95 N and 42.22 N, respectively). The results obtained demonstrated the high resistance capacity of ETFE films, making them the most suitable candidate for the considered application.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Polymersarrow_drop_down
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    Polymers
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Polymers
    Article . 2022
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Polymers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Polymersarrow_drop_down
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      Polymers
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Polymers
      Article . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Polymers
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  • Authors: Lagerberg, Julia;

    Rust or dry out? Objects made of iron and wood require different conservation conditions. Iron needs an RH, lower than 18% so as not to rust while wood wants as much as an RH of 50% so as not to dry out. Will a compromise on an RH of 30% be used at an exhibition, so that as much as possible of the object can be protected for the future even if the object will be destroyed over time? Techniques, chemicals and storage that are applied to one material can break down the other, causing problems with preservation. PEG impregnation, which is a good treatment for degraded wood, has a PH value of 4 and iron rusts at a PH of less than 9. One possibility is to add an inhibitor to the PEG solution, which increases the PH value, possibly overlay the iron part so that it does not come into contact with the PEG solution and then freeze-dry the object. By finally treating the iron with a rust protection, an RH that applies to wood can be applied. Another conceivable feature is choosing which material to keep. Can ICOM's professional ethics rules then be applied practically to these objects, for example in terms of ethics, minimum possible action and reversibility? Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen i Kulturvård, Konservatorprogrammet 15 hp Institutionen för kulturvård Göteborgs universitet 2019:19

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    Authors: CANEVA, Giulia; CESCHIN, SIMONA; DE MARCO G.;

    Damage caused by tree root growth to archaeological monuments buried underground over the course of centuries, has been frequently reported in the city of Rome. The Domus Aurea, Nero’s Imperial residence, now lies under the Horti Traianei on the Oppian hill. These gardens, planted at the beginning of the last century, are located only 3-4m above the surviving archaeological structures. In some cases roots have damaged the vaults, sometimes creating serious structural problems. Results of the study show that a variety of species have a strong root system growing for many meters laterally, and to depths of several meters, and identification of the plants responsible for the damage has been done through study of their wood anatomy. A real and potential assessment of the risk tree roots pose to the archaeological structures has been attempted. The data collected will contribute to evaluating the risk to monuments under similar conditions and will also help to avoid errors made in managing the plant cover of archaeological sites.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cavalieri, Marco; Archaeologiae. Una storia al plurale. Studi e ricerche in memoria di Sara Santoro;

    È meno noto, tra i numerosi orizzonti d’interesse coltivati da Sara Santoro, il suo coinvolgimento verso non solo l’attività di ricerca archeologica ma anche di conservazione e valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali. A tal riguardo tra i vari momenti di sintesi che più l’occuparono e che lasciarono il segno nel dibattito successivo fu, all’inizio degli anni 2000, lo studio di soluzioni conservative, presentando una prima banca dati delle coperture di aree archeologiche con soluzioni innovative in termini di materiali, costi, impatto ambientale ed efficacia conservativa. Per tal motivo si è deciso di presentare una relazione che tratti del tema della progettazione e della valorizzazione di un bene archeologico, la villa di Aiano, in Toscana, che da una decina d’anni è oggetto di studio da parte dell’UCLouvain. Ad Aiano (San Gimignano – Siena) il paesaggio naturale che circonda l’area dello scavo è di indiscutibile bellezza e integrità. Ciò rende particolarmente difficile e delicato qualsiasi tipo di intervento mirato a proteggere l’area archeologica e a valorizzarla per una sua apertura al pubblico. Si tratta di una duplice difficoltà: una legata al rapporto con il contesto naturale e alla capacità di integrare le nuove strutture nel paesaggio rurale esistente; l’altra al più diretto rapporto con le testimonianze murarie, come necessità di non alterarne la percezione – casomai favorirla – oltre a rispettare e conservare appieno la loro consistenza fisica e materiale e la loro complessiva configurazione morfologica. In questi casi la strada per procedere va rintracciata nella ‘leggerezza’, utilizzata alla scala del paesaggio ma espressa anche attraverso l’uso dei materiali impiegati. Il nuovo architettonico deve offrire rispetto e cercare dialogo, evitando ogni forma di prevaricazione e arroganza. La coabitazione e convivenza tra una struttura contemporanea e un paesaggio antico è possibile solo se si sceglie il linguaggio della semplicità, vale a dire ci si esprime con soluzioni misurate alle necessità, utilizzando un lessico essenziale e privo di eccessi formalistici. Nel caso di Aiano si è scelta la semplicità del legno. Un percorso parabolico in pianta (una passerella), adatto a ricevere una completa visione del sito e superare i dislivelli e la pendenza del terreno. Inoltre parte del percorso stesso e una notevole porzione dello scavo saranno protetti da una copertura, parzialmente trasparente, posata su una struttura reticolare spaziale in acciaio o alluminio. Ovviamente il legno, più di altri materiali, pone problemi di durata e necessità di manutenzione che si trasformano, nel tempo, in costi. Tale problema troverà una possibile soluzione attraverso il recupero di un’antica tecnica giapponese, il Shou Sugi Ban, utile a proteggere il legno a mezzo di un processo superficiale di carbonizzazione. La maggiore fonte di costo nell’applicazione di questa tecnica è costituita evidentemente dalla mano d’opera necessaria. E proprio in tale fase s’inserisce la valenza civica e sociale del progetto: il Comune di San Gimignano ospita nel suo territorio un piccolo numero di profughi immigrati in attesa di asilo, desiderosi di impiegare in maniera proficua la loro giornata. Tale disponibilità costituirà la sintesi di due azioni: una partecipazione attiva alla realizzazione del progetto e conseguentemente alla sostenibilità del suo costo; l’altra, di accoglienza ed integrazione, attraverso un inserimento non astratto dentro un percorso lavorativo mirato allo specifica e concreta realizzazione di un progetto culturale di valenza pubblica. Una dimensione della ricerca integrata in cui già Sara Santoro fu pioniera.

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  • Authors: Fort, Johan;

    Blasting with carbon dioxide is a technology that since the mid- 1940s and onwards has been developed for the industry for the finishing of different surfaces. The technique however, has not until the end of the 1970 and 80's come to play any important role in the industry, and only in recent years has this method come to be used in conservation activities. Traditional blasting media and dry ice functions partly under the same conditions, a difference however, is that the carbon dioxide sublimates after use, this consequently results in no generated waste in the form of spent blasting media except for removed surface layer. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how the blasting technique with solid carbon dioxide works, its different advantages and disadvantages, and how it is used in the restoration and preservation works in Sweden and abroad. The essay begins with a simple review of traditional blasting techniques and media to aid the reader's understanding of blasting, and highlight differences and similarities between the different systems. The essay is primarily a literature review in which I gratefully used the work of others. A simple case study has also been carried out in cooperation with the Gothenburg-based blasting company IS_AB , ISBLÄSTRINGSAKTIEBOLAGET GOTHENBURG . The purpose of this case study was to investigate whether carbon dioxide blasting technique is suitable for stone conservation, where the goal is to remove various types of unwanted coatings and finishes such as wax, different types of doodles and such. Besides using solid carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide is used in liquid and supercritical state in the industry and in the conservation world, these techniques comes because of limited space, only to be presented in the chapter 10- further research Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen i Kulturvård, Konservatorsprogrammet 15 hp Institutionen för kulturvård Göteborgs universitet 2014:49

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    Authors: Teba, Tarek;

    The conservation of cultural heritage responds to the necessities of understanding the site’s history, developments and key values. Archaeological heritage comprises tangible and intangible evidence so conservation operates equally on the two main domains, archaeology and architecture, which are inseparable and feed each other. Moreover, urban dimension is essentially included where the cultural heritage presents interesting urban settings linked to the architectural and cultural values. This thesis addresses all these important issues with the aim to identify, preserve and present the cultural values of archaeological sites in Syria, which are exceptionally rich in representing most of the Western ancient civilisations. The thesis focuses on the City of Ugarit, the capital of an important Bronze Age civilisation. The thesis aims to establish a poignant conservation concept on different scales, ranging from micro single architectural unit, the house, to the macro scale of the entire city. The study probes the ways of employing archaeology and architecture to produce conservation principles and architectural approaches for identifying, preserving and presenting the site’s cultural values. These procedures expose tangible and intangible values of the city, facilitate strong engagement of the visitors with the archaeological ruins, and simultaneously protect the original fabric from the visitation flux. The study is built upon understanding Ugarit’s archaeology, architecture and even social aspects, combining them in the analysis of each key area (Royal quarters, Domestic areas and Temples) to form well-founded interpretations and prioritise values. The proposal eventually combines all studied areas in a comprehensive narrative, which feeds the urban proposal for the whole city. In understanding the very rich and complex sites in Ugarit, a combination of in situ surveys, systematic recording, extensive analysis of literature and archaeological reports, and architectural reading of the fabric are carried out. This framework is a coherent base for the architectural intervention choices, which attempt to balance preservation implications and new materiality. Building virtual models of the proposed interventions enables the test of volumes, materiality, choices and the overall architectural experience. These models present the proposed interventions together with the original ruins. Therefore, the models are a great vehicle to transmit the reality of the conservation proposal and enhance its perception.

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    Authors: Drolet, Elizabeth Johnson;

    This paper investigates the effects of heavy shell deposits on the condition of low-fired ceramics using the Late Archaic fiber-tempered assemblage from St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Through combined non-destructive analytical techniques, including variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) and portable X-ray florescence spectroscopy (pXRF), the structural, chemical, and physical deterioration is examined. This study seeks to determine the efficacy and limitations of non-destructive analysis in the investigation of deterioration processes. Limited destructive analysis using thin-section petrography is employed to complement the non-destructive testing. The condition of ceramics recovered from dense shell deposits is compared with those from shell-free areas of the site. The paper discusses the effect that the burial environment has on changes in preservation, as well as the consequences that these changes have on the excavation, storage, and analysis of these materials.

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    Authors: Jenkins, Skyler;

    Bioapatite or hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biocomposite and the main component of hard tissues such as bones and teeth. Owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, synthetically produced hydroxyapatite has found extensive applications in medicine and dentistry. More recently, the direct in situ formation of hydroxyapatite through reaction chemistries between calcium-rich matrices in stone, wall paintings, and bone, and ammonium phosphate precursors induced via a wet-chemistry route, has been explored as a potential inorganic mineral consolidant for cultural heritage artifacts. Building on previous studies, this research tests a new multi-step process to control the deposition, crystal formation and growth of HAP on archaeological bone, through the application of calcium hydroxide colloids, collagen, and diammonium phosphate precursors. Here we describe the step-by-step approach for the application of precursors, formation of HAP and the methods of evaluation based on the characterization of the chemistry and microstructure of pre-consolidated and consolidated bone, and the evaluation of optical and mechanical properties of consolidated samples.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: SEGARRA LAGUNES, MARIA MARGARITA;

    L'articolo è incentrato sul progetto di restauro e recupero dell'Anfiteatro romano di Tivoli. Abbandonato e dimenticato per molti anni, esso costituisce una parte essenziale del patrimonio culturale della città, integrato da monumenti quali la Villa d'Este, la Rocca Pia (il cui recupero sarà completato a breve) e le Scuderie Estensi. Il restauro dell'Anfiteatro pone, infatti, questioni interessanti, legate non soltanto alla conservazione del sito archeologico, ma anche alla sua comprensione, interpretazione e presentazione al pubblico (mediante ricostruzioni parziali), così inerenti agli uso compatibili. The paper is focused on the project of restoration and recovery of the Roman Amphitheatre in Tivoli. Abandoned and forgotten for many years, it is an essential part of the cultural heritage of the city, consisting in monuments such as the Villa d'Este, the Rocca Pia (whose recovery will be completed soon) and the Scuderie Estensi. Its restoration arises, in fact, interesting questions related not only to the preservation of the archaeological site, but also to its understanding, interpretation and presentation to the public (partial reconstructions), as well as to its compatible use.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morezzi, Emanuele; Haj Ismail, Salah;
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    Publications Open Repository TOrino
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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    Publications Open Repository TOrino
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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      Publications Open Repository TOrino
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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      Publications Open Repository TOrino
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
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    Authors: Maria Paola Bracciale; Lorena Capasso; Fabrizio Sarasini; Jacopo Tirillò; +1 Authors

    In recent years, fluoropolymers have found numerous applications in the architectural field because of their combination of mechanical-chemical resistance and high transparency. In the present work, commercial fluorinated polymers, such as perfluoro alkoxy (PFA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), have been evaluated for use as protective and transparent layers on monumental and archaeological sites (to preserve mosaics or frescoes) during the phases of restoration or maintenance outdoors. Considering this specific application, the present study was developed by evaluating the evolution of the mechanical (tensile, tear propagation resistance, and low-velocity impact tests) and chemical (FTIR and DSC analysis) properties of the films after accelerated UV aging. The results that were obtained demonstrated the high resistance capacity of the ETFE, which exhibits considerably higher elastic modulus and critical tear energy values than PFA films (1075.38 MPa and 131.70 N/mm for ETFE; 625.48 MPa and 59.06 N/mm for PFA). After aging, the samples exhibited only a slight reduction of about 5% in the elastic modulus for both polymers and 10% in the critical tear energy values for PFA. Furthermore, the differences in impact resistance after aging were limited for both polymers; however, the ETFE film showed higher peak force than the PFA films (82.95 N and 42.22 N, respectively). The results obtained demonstrated the high resistance capacity of ETFE films, making them the most suitable candidate for the considered application.

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    Polymers
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Polymers
    Article . 2022
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    Polymers
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      Polymers
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Polymers
      Article . 2022
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  • Authors: Lagerberg, Julia;

    Rust or dry out? Objects made of iron and wood require different conservation conditions. Iron needs an RH, lower than 18% so as not to rust while wood wants as much as an RH of 50% so as not to dry out. Will a compromise on an RH of 30% be used at an exhibition, so that as much as possible of the object can be protected for the future even if the object will be destroyed over time? Techniques, chemicals and storage that are applied to one material can break down the other, causing problems with preservation. PEG impregnation, which is a good treatment for degraded wood, has a PH value of 4 and iron rusts at a PH of less than 9. One possibility is to add an inhibitor to the PEG solution, which increases the PH value, possibly overlay the iron part so that it does not come into contact with the PEG solution and then freeze-dry the object. By finally treating the iron with a rust protection, an RH that applies to wood can be applied. Another conceivable feature is choosing which material to keep. Can ICOM's professional ethics rules then be applied practically to these objects, for example in terms of ethics, minimum possible action and reversibility? Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen i Kulturvård, Konservatorprogrammet 15 hp Institutionen för kulturvård Göteborgs universitet 2019:19

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    Authors: CANEVA, Giulia; CESCHIN, SIMONA; DE MARCO G.;

    Damage caused by tree root growth to archaeological monuments buried underground over the course of centuries, has been frequently reported in the city of Rome. The Domus Aurea, Nero’s Imperial residence, now lies under the Horti Traianei on the Oppian hill. These gardens, planted at the beginning of the last century, are located only 3-4m above the surviving archaeological structures. In some cases roots have damaged the vaults, sometimes creating serious structural problems. Results of the study show that a variety of species have a strong root system growing for many meters laterally, and to depths of several meters, and identification of the plants responsible for the damage has been done through study of their wood anatomy. A real and potential assessment of the risk tree roots pose to the archaeological structures has been attempted. The data collected will contribute to evaluating the risk to monuments under similar conditions and will also help to avoid errors made in managing the plant cover of archaeological sites.

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    Authors: Cavalieri, Marco; Archaeologiae. Una storia al plurale. Studi e ricerche in memoria di Sara Santoro;

    È meno noto, tra i numerosi orizzonti d’interesse coltivati da Sara Santoro, il suo coinvolgimento verso non solo l’attività di ricerca archeologica ma anche di conservazione e valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali. A tal riguardo tra i vari momenti di sintesi che più l’occuparono e che lasciarono il segno nel dibattito successivo fu, all’inizio degli anni 2000, lo studio di soluzioni conservative, presentando una prima banca dati delle coperture di aree archeologiche con soluzioni innovative in termini di materiali, costi, impatto ambientale ed efficacia conservativa. Per tal motivo si è deciso di presentare una relazione che tratti del tema della progettazione e della valorizzazione di un bene archeologico, la villa di Aiano, in Toscana, che da una decina d’anni è oggetto di studio da parte dell’UCLouvain. Ad Aiano (San Gimignano – Siena) il paesaggio naturale che circonda l’area dello scavo è di indiscutibile bellezza e integrità. Ciò rende particolarmente difficile e delicato qualsiasi tipo di intervento mirato a proteggere l’area archeologica e a valorizzarla per una sua apertura al pubblico. Si tratta di una duplice difficoltà: una legata al rapporto con il contesto naturale e alla capacità di integrare le nuove strutture nel paesaggio rurale esistente; l’altra al più diretto rapporto con le testimonianze murarie, come necessità di non alterarne la percezione – casomai favorirla – oltre a rispettare e conservare appieno la loro consistenza fisica e materiale e la loro complessiva configurazione morfologica. In questi casi la strada per procedere va rintracciata nella ‘leggerezza’, utilizzata alla scala del paesaggio ma espressa anche attraverso l’uso dei materiali impiegati. Il nuovo architettonico deve offrire rispetto e cercare dialogo, evitando ogni forma di prevaricazione e arroganza. La coabitazione e convivenza tra una struttura contemporanea e un paesaggio antico è possibile solo se si sceglie il linguaggio della semplicità, vale a dire ci si esprime con soluzioni misurate alle necessità, utilizzando un lessico essenziale e privo di eccessi formalistici. Nel caso di Aiano si è scelta la semplicità del legno. Un percorso parabolico in pianta (una passerella), adatto a ricevere una completa visione del sito e superare i dislivelli e la pendenza del terreno. Inoltre parte del percorso stesso e una notevole porzione dello scavo saranno protetti da una copertura, parzialmente trasparente, posata su una struttura reticolare spaziale in acciaio o alluminio. Ovviamente il legno, più di altri materiali, pone problemi di durata e necessità di manutenzione che si trasformano, nel tempo, in costi. Tale problema troverà una possibile soluzione attraverso il recupero di un’antica tecnica giapponese, il Shou Sugi Ban, utile a proteggere il legno a mezzo di un processo superficiale di carbonizzazione. La maggiore fonte di costo nell’applicazione di questa tecnica è costituita evidentemente dalla mano d’opera necessaria. E proprio in tale fase s’inserisce la valenza civica e sociale del progetto: il Comune di San Gimignano ospita nel suo territorio un piccolo numero di profughi immigrati in attesa di asilo, desiderosi di impiegare in maniera proficua la loro giornata. Tale disponibilità costituirà la sintesi di due azioni: una partecipazione attiva alla realizzazione del progetto e conseguentemente alla sostenibilità del suo costo; l’altra, di accoglienza ed integrazione, attraverso un inserimento non astratto dentro un percorso lavorativo mirato allo specifica e concreta realizzazione di un progetto culturale di valenza pubblica. Una dimensione della ricerca integrata in cui già Sara Santoro fu pioniera.

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  • Authors: Fort, Johan;